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Test Review

Areas to be covered:
• Cubism
• Futurism
• Expressionism
• Dada
• Surrealism
• Constructivism
• DeStijl
• Bauhaus

Following are quick key points for each area;
Cubism
Analytic Cubism (1910-1912)
 - The planes of the subject are analyzed from several points of view
Synthetic Cubism (1913)
 - The artist invented forms that were sign/symbols rather than true representation of their subject, (for example, the guitar for the female body). Collage was also used.
• Key artists; Cezanne (a pre-influence), Picasso, Braque, Gris, and Léger.

Futurism
• Began in 1909 when Marinetti wrote the Futurist’s Manifesto that was published in the French newspaper La Figero.
This style wanted to promote the new – technology, speed, power, and movement
• Many of these artist wrote poetry and illustrated them graphically. This poetry would have as many as 20 typefaces in a single poem, with movement of the type around the page and the use of bold to highlight.
• The movement primarily stayed within Italy, but a faction called Cubo-Futurism did occur in Russia.
• This movement had influence on the movements that followed (Dada, Constructivism, etc.), along with influencing how we look at typography today.
• Key artists; Marinetti, Depero (important graphically), Balla, Boccioni, Carra, Severini

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Expressionism
Die Brücke/The Bridge (1905), Dresden, Germany
 - Key artists from this group; Dix, Kirchner, Grosz, Nolde, and Kollwitz
 – Characteristics of this group are wood-cuts prints, heavy violent use of color, influence of Gothic art
 - Concern was to express inner feelings/thoughts not of beauty.
Der Blaue Reiter/The Blue Rider (1911)
 – Key artists from this group include; Kandinsky, Klee, and Marc
 - This group was concerned with the abstract, they used symbols and signs in their expression rather than the human figure.

Dada
• Movement that dates from 1916-1923.
• Many different groups of this movement that spread throughout Europe – Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Koln. and Paris -  and New York City.
• The movement began in Zurich, Switzerland at the Cabarat Voltaire owned by the artist Hugo Ball
• Story of the name is that the artists placed a paper knife into a French dictionary and it fell on the word dada, which means a child’s play horse.
• The developers of this movement include; Ball, Tzara and Arp
• Other key members of this group include; Duchamp (Ready-mades), Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Breton, Grosz, Heatfield (photomontage posters), and Schwitters (Merz)
• This movement was a political movement that was very much against the horrors of WWI
• The work included painting, sculpture, illustrated poetry, photography/photomontage, and collage
• By 1923 members of the group started published written attacks against each other, until it was no longer an organized movement.

Surrealism
• Began in 1924 in Paris by Andre Breton – one of the key Dada artists.
• This movement was concerned with communicating the subconscious.
• There are 2 groups of Surrealism;
 - Figurative, including artists Dali, Magritte, de Chirico, and Ernst. It was where the perspective, space and figures are carfully rendered but the painting as a whole is unreal/dreamlike.
 – Visual Automatism, including artists Miro and Arp. In this form the artist created expressions of their inner feelings, putting them on canvas without thinking about their meaning.

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Constructivism
• Beginnings of Constructivism are with the Russian Movement Suprematism (1913) by Malevich. This was a purely abstract movement based on the rectangular shape and color.
• Constructivism was began as a youth movement in 1921 by the architect Tatlin and artist Rodchenko.
• Artists from this movement called themselves Constructors, and they strongly believed they were helping to rebuild a new and better Russian society. They left traditional art forms to build and design necessary objects like a stove.
• Rodchenko collaborated with the writer Mayakovsky to create ads/posters.
• Lissitzky had tremendous effect on the movement, the spread of the movement’s ideals and our graphic design/typography today. He traveled out of Russia primarily to Germany to promote the style and to bring other influences back.
• The Stenberg Brothers did a very large series of posters for the theater in Russia (an area always promoted by the Russian government). These posters were dramatic in their use of color and perspective, and the combination of photomontage with the painting.
• Characteristcs of this style include; heavy bold sans serif type, the use of heavy rules together with the type, use of diagnols, color varied, but prominent color was black, white and red.

DeStijl
• Began in Holland on 1917
• It was a movement of abstraction and simplicity – with form reduced to rectangular/ geometric shapes, and color limited to the primary colors along with black and white.
• Founders of this movement are van Doesburg and Mondrian
• Other members include; van der Leck, Huszar, Oud, Reitveld, and Zwart
• The movement took its name from the publication by van Doesburg also called DeStijl which translates to The Style.
• van Doesburg highly promoted this style even moving to Germany for awhile teaching the style to Bauhuas students (he was never asked to teach at the Bauhaus).
• When van Doesburg died in 1931,  the publication and the movement quickly fading.
• Mondrian remained within the strict guidelines of this style, disassociating himself from the movement when diagnols were introduced into the style.
• Piet Zwart was never officially part of the movement but his work reflect many characterists of the style.
• Reitveld translated this style’s characterists into architecture with the Schroder house.

The Bauhaus
• Established in 1919 in Weimar, Germany
• Moved to Dessau, Germany in 1925
• Moved to Berlin Germany in 1932, with the school closing in 1933
Directors of the school include; Walter Gropius (1919-1928), Hannes Mayer (1928-1930) and Mies van der Rohe (1930-1933)
• Some of the faculty/maters included; Itten, Moholy-Nagy, Bayer, Kandinsky, Klee, Feininger, Albers, Schmidt, Stolzl, and Schlemmer
• The teaching was based on the workshop hand-on learning influenced by Wm. Morris’s workshops during the Arts and Crafts movement.
• The courses started with a foundation type of class with the students progressing to their chosen major after. Our art classes today are based on this system of teaching.
• Itten was the first foundation teacher with Moholy-Nagy replacing him in 1923.
• A typographic workshop was also added in 1923, with former student Bayer as the teacher.

Identification suggestions;
• All identification will be from imagery that is in your book.
• If you do not know the artist but know the style, write that for partial credit.
• Really look at the pieces, sometimes the artist’s signature, or even name is within the piece.

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