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Post Modern, 1960 - Present

Period definition; Rejection of orthodox Modernist purity.

Post Modern Graphic Design goals;
• Upset established thinking, provoke convention and set new standards
• Incorporate subjectivity
• Include social and political commentary
• Blur the lines between fine art and commerce
• Embrace historical reference and decoration

There are distinctive visual characteristics in the Post-Modern style that blends history, new technology and decoration;
• Playful Kinetic Geometry with Floating Forms
• Sawtooth Rules and Randomly Placed Lines of Type
• Multiple Layers and Fragmented Imagery
• Pastel Blends of Color
• Disconnected Letter spaced Typography
• Frequent References to Art and Design History

Some of the work from Push Pin Graphics is classified as Post-Modern

Chwast Grapus Grapus GrapGlaser

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Psychedelic  late 50s, 60s
• Origins;  San Francisco, youth culture emerged in New York, Atlanta,
Chicago, Dallas
• Attitude;  Unique visual code for subculture communication
• Visual Characteristics;  Inspired by Art Nouveau, Secessionist lettering and East Indian motif, Curvilinear forms, florescent colors
• Contributors;  Wes Wilson, Peter Max, Stanley Mouse, Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso

Max Grapus Grapus Grapus Grapus GrapMoscoso

Japanese Modern  late 60s, 70s
• Origins;  Tokyo
• Attitude;  Break from International Style
• Visual Characteristics;  Style visualized prosperity of the future, Designers employed photographic and computer-aided tools, Transformed pages to feel dimensional
• Contributors;  Tadanori Yokoo

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New Wave / Basel  70s, 80s
• Origins;  Basel, Switzerland
• Attitude;  Advancement of Modernist principles, Recycled Modernist styles and techniques.
• Visual Characteristics;  Loosening up on old forms, Look more informal, Used photographic and electronic technologies, Complexity using layered text and imagery.
 • Wolfgang Weingart – late 60s, experimented with freeform type, he rejected order and cleanliness of Swiss grid.
 • April Greiman – student of Weingart, explored bitmapped fonts, patterns,
layered imagery and kinetic photography.
• Dan Friedman – also a student of Weingart, Friedman also taught along with designing, tested relationships between avant-garde and practical design applications.

Weingart Grapus Grapus GrGreiman Grapus Grapus GraFriedman

Memphis, early 80s, short lived
• Origins;  Italian design group in Milan, Italy, Spread to London, New York,
Los Angeles and Seattle
• Attitude;  Function became secondary
• Visual Characteristics;  Exaggerated geometric forms
• Contributors;  Ettore, Sottsass, Jr. – combined Constructivist forms with brightly colored geometrics

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Zurich  80s
• Origin;  Zurich, Switzerland
• Visual Characteristics;  Based on geometrics, Simplicity, use of white space and primary colors, Typographic collage
• Contributors;  Rosemarie Tissi, Siegfried Odermatt

Odermatt Grapus Grapus GrTissi

American New Wave  80s
• Origin;  New York, San Francisco
• Visual Characteristics;  Graphic Imagery Reflects the Contemporary Fetish
for Products of the Material, Commercial, and High-Tech Culture
• Contributors;  John Jay, Tibor Kalman, Rudy Vanderlans

Emigre Grapus Grapus GrapKalman

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American Punk, 80s
• Origin;  New York
• Visual Characteristics;  Collage, Comic
• Contributors;  Art Chantry, Gary Panter, Mark Marek

Chantry Grapus Grapus GraMarek

American Post-Modern, 80s
• Origin;  New York, Houston
• Visual Characteristics;  Trends in Architecture Influenced Typography and
Pictorial Use
• Contributors;  Woody Pirtle, Michael Vanderbyl, and John Cassado

Pirtle Grapus Grapus Grapu Vanderbyl Grapus Grapus GraCassado

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European New Wave, 80s
• Origin;  France, Holland
• Visual Characteristics;  Solid Graphic Forms and Unadorned Hand-Lettering
• Contributors;  Grapus, Studio Dumbar, Joost Swarte

Grapus Emigre Emigre EmigStudio Dumbar Emigre EmigrSwarte

Digital, 1985 to the present
• Period Definition  A generation's rebellion against cold corporate modernism Digital media encouraged experimentation cultural influences technology, computer applications bring page layout and typeface design to the masses
Visual Characteristics:
• Digital tools encourages experimentation and distortion
• Chaotic typography
• Layouts rejecting conventional placement of text and image

Emigre Emigre Emigre EmigFuse Emigre Emigre EmigreMakala

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