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Art Deco

Art Deco can also be called Modernism. It was a style that was called many things: Style Chanel, Style Poiret, Skyscraper Style, Vertical Style, New York Style, Art Modern, and Jazz Style.

The style was only named in 1966, when the Musée des Arts Décoratifs of Paris held a retrospective of work designed in the style that had been shown at the 1925 Paris Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industrials Modernes. Art Deco is an abbreviationof the title of this 1925 exhibition.

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Art Deco was an evolving style without an exact start and finish date, but the style approximately started in 1908 with its high point in 1925, and ending around 1939. The focus of this style up until 1925 was in Europe, especially Paris. After 1925 the focus was primarily in the United States. Art Deco was a style in various areas of the arts including architecture, fashion design, and jewelry design. It was also a style in which each country had its own distinct style, and includes work from all the modern art movements.

Art Deco was influenced by Art Nouveau, and Indian art from the North American Indians and the Aztec Indians. Influences also came from the modern movements as they became established.

Four characteristics that distinguish art deco work include:

1. Geometric and Linear
2. Optical Simplicity, using only the essential features, for example a dot for an eye or a line to represent a mouth.
3. Distortion of Reality, suggested and interpreted the real world but made it better, also created illusions using scale and size.
4. Period Representation, representing the inventions of the time, like transportation and communication.

A.M. Cassandre, moved from the Ukraine to Paris at the age of fourteen. His graphic design career began at 23with poster commissions. He was of the most successful of the Art Deco artists.

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Jean Carlu, is known for his dramatic, direct posters using geometric forms and minimal text. His compositions influenced by Cubism. Also known to interlock word and image, as we see in each of these posters where he repeats circular forms and have the "O" in each poster be part of a word and double as image.

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Paul Colin, was orginally a painter but after WWI Colin left painting to do graphic and set design for the theater in Paris. Used vibrant color, informal compositions and energetic linear drawing. Produced thousands of posters, working on posters right into the 1970s.

Leonetto Cappiello, was born in Italy in 1875, by 1900 he became famous for his poster work while working in Paris. He is considered by many as the father of modern advertising. He used exaggerated color along with large flat planes, shock/surprise are characteristics of his style.

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Austin Cooper, was born in Canada and studied art in Great Britain, he used shifting angles to evoke movement. Also known for his geometric shape, use of color and superimposition of lettering in his work.

Joseph Binder, was from Vienna Austria he was influenced by Koloman Moser (Vienna Secession) and Cubism. Reduced imagery down to basic form and shape. Binder came to New York in 1935 where he is considered a pioneer of graphic design in the U.S.

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